Biological nature and its relation with time

find below a hypothesis I have been working in, maybe someone find it interesting…bw

Aquiles Bridge Buenos Aires, Argentina | 22/12/2021

Nahuel Aquiles Garcia, Ph.D | gecorpinfo@gmail.com | +54 2226 601908

A hypothesis to try to understand how biological nature works in relation to its connection with the cosmos, with how cells measure time and with the innate emergence of consciousness

Abstract

This document will expose a hypothesis to find causal relationships between physical and biological knowledge with the goal of understanding the mechanistic bases of biological nature in relation to the measurement of time and consciousness. To do it, I used a tool: to think about one biological reality which living beings experience in 4 dimensions (3 spatial and one biological temporal) where time has a biological referential perspective and one universal reality with the same 3 spatial dimensions where the 4th universal temporal dimension will only be introduced when it is convenient and from an universal and non-biological referential perspective. In this way, I will look for a referential system, an information input that allows me to generate a temporary transformation (bridge) between both realities, which are the same but temporarily out of phase; a hypothesis that explains how a biological organism with a biological temporal and referential perspective is capable of measuring time at universal scale, using the DNA as a quantum circuit and with the emergence of consciousness as consequence. Thus, I will try to explain how the fractal antenna properties of DNA molecules of a living organism acts as quantum circuits to measure time on a universal scale using quantum entanglement and Doppler effect as a reference system to establish a bridge between the universal reality and the biological reality. It is about how DNA molecules, through the entanglement of their electrons, are capable of acting as a quantum circuit, producing and receiving fractal frequencies (acting as fractal antenna) related to the reception and emission of biophotons that, depending on the state of consciousness or unconsciousness, could act as waves or as particles (similar to the Orchestrated objective reduction - Orch OR hypothesis, see below). Thus, some of these fractal frequencies may be captured from outer space ( information input ), which due to the expansion of the universe would arrive with wave phase shift (Doppler effect) that the DNA quantum circuit would use to measure time, establishing a bridge between biological time and universal time. My ideas are inconsistent and incomplete in many parts. But I believe it still been worth it to give a chance to them, mostly because the scientific evidence that I will mention through this document and especially in page 6-7. I believe that the unconscious (DNA acting as a quantum circuit/fractal antenna maybe through biophotons as waves) is not only related to the brain or the nervous system. I think it is an essential capacity that living organisms have to connect with the cosmos in order to capture information input (measure of time and instructions) that allows them to perform functions in a precise frame of reference. Each particle is a perfect clock (mc2 = hν), but a clock without a reference frame is useless for the purpose of life. Hopefully the human nature, with its biological reality, instinctively tends to intuit the universal reality.

Introduction of biological concepts and scientific evidence necessary to understand my hypothesis

DNA and quantum entanglement

In 2018, Elisabeth Rieper y colleagues1 published an interesting work where they model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. They showed that for realistic parameters nearest neighbour entanglement in DNA is present even at room temperature.

In 2017, Ivan Hubac and colleagues2 studied the Quantum entanglement and quantum information in biological systems in relation to DNA. They defined qubits formed by Majorana fermions in the hydrogen bonds of DNA (A-T and C-G) and also investigated about the entangled states in base pairs. Quantum information and quantum entropy were introduced. In addition to the well-known classical information connected with the DNA base pairs, they also consider quantum information and showed that the classical and quantum information are closely connected. They showed that quasiparticle transformations leading to coupling of electronic and vibrational motion in the vibrational-electronic molecular Hamiltonian can be subjected to Majorana transformations to give relations that describe a chain of Majorana fermions akin to Kitaev chain. Majorana fermions that are localized at the two ends of this chain define a delocalized fermion state. Such delocalized fermions within a complex molecule define Majorana qubits. They suggested that these Majorana qubits give rise to entanglement and form the foundation of molecular quantum information processes. They showed that in hydrogen bonds of the A-T and C-G base pairs of the DNA molecule the Majorana fermions of the hydrogen electrons are spatially well separated. While the two- hydrogen bonds of isolated A-T or T-A base pairs are pure single-qubit states, the three- hydrogen bonds of the C-G or G-C base pairs are mixed two-qubit states. Two adjacent A-T/T-A base pairs are also mixed two-qubit states. Finally they related those features to a value of von Neumann quantum information entropy thus forming a quantum information sequence.

DNA as a fractal antenna

In 2011, Martin Blank and Reba Goodman3 proposed that DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields. They conclude that the DNA wide frequency range of interaction with electromagnetic fields (EMF) is the functional characteristic of a fractal antenna, and DNA appears to possess the two structural characteristics of fractal antennas, electronic conduction and self-symmetry.

In 2017, Singh P. et al .4 showed DNA as an electromagnetic fractal cavity resonator. They reported that 3D-A-DNA structure behaves as a fractal antenna, which can interact with the electromagnetic fields over a wide range of frequencies. Using the lattice details of human DNA, they modelled radiation of DNA as a helical antenna. The DNA structure resonates with the electromagnetic waves at 34 GHz, with a positive gain of 1.7 dBi. They also analyzed the role of three different lattice symmetries of DNA and the possibility of soliton-based energy transmission along the structure.

DNA and biophotons

Living systems emit what is called ultraweak photon emission (UPE) or biophotons. This visually undetectable phenomenon has been studied for the last 30 years. Cells produce photons of biological origin-biophotons (not bioluminescence) related to metabolic activity produced by electronic triplets that participate in electron transport chain in metabolic processes5. Cell to cell communication by biophotons, has been demonstrated in animal cells. This biophotons are easily to detect in the brain (and other tissues of the body) using standard approaches6. Experimental evidence suggested that biophotons play a potential role in neural signal transmission and processing, contributing to the understanding of the high functions of nervous system5-7.

In 1984, Dr. Popp and colleagues proposed the DNA as source of coherent biophoton emission8, taking DNA as an exciplex laser system, where a stable state can be reached far from thermal equilibrium at threshold. In 2020, Na Li. et al. demonstrated that the energy released by phosphoanhydride-bond (PB) hydrolysis of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) during DNA synhypothesis is in form of biophotons to drive DNA replication, by modulating their resonance9.

Main hypothesis: Aquiles Bridge

How do cells measure time? The beginning of all biological organisms is linked to DNA replication. Thus, I propose DNA as the main cellular structure to measure time. In lower organisms (bacteria and yeasts) DNA replication itself would be the key to start the time count. The DNA sequence of simple organism would act as a quantum circuit for measuring time (below I will argue how and why). In higher organisms such as mammals, the fusion of the two gametes (ovum and sperm, both carrying half of the total DNA of the individual) would be necessary to complete the quantum circuit and measure time. We will all agree that an organism begins to age from the moment it is conceived. Interestingly, although gametes (ovum and sperm) have half of the DNA amount necessary to create a complete organism, the formation of gametes begins with the DNA replication (meiosis).

Biophotons have the capacity to travel to infinity in a hyperbolic geometry without experience time. Then, (and I am not sure of this but I believe it is possible) as the fractal properties of frequencies are related to the hyperbolic geometry, if DNA act as a fractal antenna3,4 likely is interacting with two kind of signals, the biological biophotonic signals produced by the cells5-8 and other type of signals coming from out the cells (maybe the cosmos, just the surrounding nature). Thus, DNA structures would have the ability to interact with time at two different scales, one biological and one universal. If we assume that the frequencies (of whatever type) come from outer space, then due to the expansion of the universe they would be reaching the cells with a wave phase shift (Doppler effect) and that wave shift would be what DNA is capable of measuring and transmitting on a biological time scale. The DNA would be acting as a cosmic antenna to translate signals from a universal scale to a biological scale (capturing an information input). For this, it is necessary for DNA to be able to handle information (entropy)2 in an orderly way. To do it, I propose that DNA acts as a quantum circuit. Perhaps specific nucleotide sequences act as a quantum circuit and the 3D structure of DNA is what acts as a fractal antenna.

DNA could be performing these functions by acting as a quantum circuit, or perhaps in some other way that I still don’t understand. To date (December 2021), no one has explored the possibility of DNA acting as a quantum circuit. I’ve been trying a way to do it. It involves quantum programming knowledge, which I am still learning but I have some interesting results. My idea is to understand a DNA sequence as a programming system/language itself, working in the cell as a quantum circuit, so I coded some programs in python (very naive codes since I am just learning how to code) to translate DNA sequences to quantum circuits and test my hypothesis. If the quantum circuits generated from DNA sequences have coherence, then we can begin to think that my idea is not so crazy, and in the future maybe use the nature of DNA to develop quantum circuits. Then, testing quantum circuits made from different parts of the genome (e.g. coding and non-coding regions, and with different functions as enhancers, promoters…) I could get to see correlations that support my hypothesis, or not. For example to see changes in the circuits when goes from a coding versus a non-coding DNA region. In this link (Hi there.docx - Google Docs) you can see some of the programs I have created and depending on those programs the circuits that were generated from a DNA sequence (from the CRY1 gene sequence, my favorite because it encodes for a protein able to sensing light and magnetic fields through quantum entanglement25) on google cirq platform (public free quantum circuit simulator). I am having results pointing in the direction of my hypothesis. But logically, they are simple codes and circuits; if I want to include more qubits and gates, or approaches that are far from my basic understanding such as Shor’s algorithm, I have problems with my knowledge about programming and quantum circuits. I understand about biology and DNA, but not about programming. I hope you find it interesting and want to help and colab in some way.

What is the unconscious and how it is related with my hypothesis?

There are some interesting relationships to take into account: if we consider the awareness as a kind of detector (similar to detectors placed in the slits of double-slit experiments) the biophotons of the cells could act as a wave or as a particle depending on the conscious or unconscious state of the organism. Thus, the DNA acting as a quantum circuit that interprets these biophotons frequencies/states would be able to process these changes in the particle/wave state of the biophotons. In the unconscious state, biophotons would act as waves, allowing DNA to connect to a universal time scale by receiving frequencies from outer space (the nature). In this unconscious state the DNA as a quantum circuit would adjust (as a function of the received signals) its parameters (perhaps entangled biophotons) to reset the biological system when it returns to the conscious state. Are there living organisms that do not possess this ability (or need) to enter an unconscious state to perform biological functions? Why did evolution lead many species to develop states of unconsciousness (sleep)? All the cells in an organism have DNA; it is necessary the presence of a nervous system? It is really interesting the fact that very early in the evolution of the species (almost at the beginning) already exist signals of basic organisms with the need to sleep. If jellyfish sleep12, that suggests sleep may have evolved more than 1 billion years ago and could be a fundamental function of almost all organisms in the animal kingdom, many of which do not have brains. There are some works even suggesting that plants also perform a similar process than animal sleep13. It is possible that even organisms simpler than plants or jellyfish perform sleep-like processes, but we still don’t know it. I think the answer lies in an experiment that has been carried out for the last 30 years in Michigan State University, it is called the Long-Term Evolution Experiment11. Professor Lensky and collaborators have been keeping the same strain of bacteria alive for 30 years. To replicate, these organisms duplicate their DNA several times a day, the fact of replicating for 30 years implies billions of replications, which makes this model an interesting model to study evolution. Thus, they study the ability of bacteria to adapt to different selection pressures (nutrients, temperatures, etc). But the most interesting conclusion they reached is what happened during these 30 years to bacteria that were never subjected to selection pressures, which always had everything necessary to live. Mysteriously, these bacteria also spontaneously develop adaptations and enhancements, which are not explained by any known mechanism. It is as if the bacteria were magically guided to evolve and gain functions in a specific direction. I think what happens is that the DNA of these bacteria, acting as a fractal antenna and quantum circuit, is receiving fractal frequencies (instructions) from outer space to evolve (“through time”) in a specific direction, the direction of the universal nature. What are these signals and where do they come from ? I do not know. I suspect that it is the most basic level of nature acting on its own; it is pure reality fulfilling the purpose of the universe which is to exist in time, which is the same purpose that life has. For the human understanding, the universe seems to have basic rules and these signals would respond to those rules in terms of entropy and information. Thus, perhaps these signals are a form of order (information, energy and entropy) capable of going through different stages of expansion and contraction of the universe (aeon)38 , belonging and not belonging at the same time in the life process. Aquiles bridge gives to these signals a conceptual frame in relation with the life process, but I suspect that these signals (may Hawking points38) are acting to bring information to the entire universe (not just living organisms). If in some way we perceive the mind and the unconscious as something infinite and timeless, then perhaps the fact that it works by connecting with frequencies that travel through the universe without experiencing time (in a hyperbolic geometry) is related with our intuition about what the unconscious is. Here is where an interesting point arises. There would then be two types of evolution for living beings. A biological evolution (partly explained by theories like Darwin’s) and a universal evolution. Surely both are acting simultaneously to result in the diversity of living beings that we find on earth. But the question would be to what extent has universal evolution tended to guide the development of complex organisms to the point of developing an unconscious capable of reflecting that universal reality? From a physical point of view, this question does not make sense, since the answer would be that universal laws are not capricious. But from evolutionary biology (just out of ignorance) it would seem that some external force has acted at key moments in the evolution of species, without any known type of probabilistic evolutionary model being able to explain these events. Nature does not play the dice and new scientific approaches would be necessary to try to understand these mysterious and unlikely evolutionary leaps14. Finally I believe that the unconscious (DNA acting as a quantum circuit/fractal antenna maybe through biophotons as waves) is not only related to the brain or the nervous system. I think it is an essential capacity that living organisms have to connect with the cosmos in order to capture information input (measure of time and instructions) that allows them to perform functions in a precise frame of reference. Each particle is a perfect clock (mc2 = hν), but a clock without a reference frame is useless for the purpose of life.

Scientific evidence related to my hypothesis: There is evidence related to my hypothesis. Below I will mention some of these related works.

Developed by Roger Penrose and studied by Stuart Hameroff, Orchestrated objective reduction ( Orch OR ) is a hypothesis that postulates that consciousness originates at the quantum level inside neurons35. The mechanism is called objective reduction and is orchestrated by cellular microtubules. Orch OR posits that consciousness is based on non-computable quantum processing performed by qubits formed collectively on cellular microtubules, a process significantly amplified in the neurons. The qubits are based on oscillating dipoles forming superposed resonance rings in helical pathways throughout lattices of microtubules. Orchestration refers to the hypothetical process by which connective proteins, such as microtubule (MAPs), influence or orchestrates qubit state reduction by modifying the space time-separation of their superimposed states. The latter is based on Penrose’s objective-collapse theory for interpreting quantum mechanics, which postulates the existence of an objective threshold governing the collapse of quantum-states, related to the difference of the space time curvature of these states in the universe’s fine-scale structure. Personally I think it’s a fascinating idea, in fact I developed Aquiles Bridge from my ignorance, with my basic knowledge of some phenomena and theories, without knowing the Orch OR hypothesis which I find very curious (but not extraordinary), I mean, how different people with such different abilities can come up with such similar ideas. It would be very interesting to be able to study Orch OR and its relationship with DNA. I think that the key is DNA and not in the microtubules. In April 2022, at The Science of Consciousness conference, Hameroff and Jack Tuszyński demonstrated that anesthetics hasten the duration of a process called delayed luminescence, in which microtubules and tubulins re-emit trapped light36. Tuszyński suspects that the phenomenon has a quantum origin, with super radiance being investigated as one possibility. I emailed both of them in 2019 telling about biophotons and consciences but they never answer, for sure they never get my emails, but I am glad they finally turn their workforce in the right direction. At the same conference, Gregory D. Scholes and Aarat Kalra used lasers to excite molecules within tubulins, causing a prolonged excitation to diffuse through microtubules further than expected, which did not occur when repeated under anesthesia37.

  • Many studies over the last 20 years have compared brain activity between sleep and wakefulness (delta and theta waves) 15, 16. While in wakefulness, brain activity establishes activity patterns that respond to specific processes such as memory, seeing, listening, solving math problems, etc. and these patterns have a continuous distribution among the different areas of the brain, during sleep the brain activity change in different ways, periodic activity patterns are found in different parts of the brain (without any apparent input which guides these patterns) acting in unison as if the different parts were connected by some wireless mechanism (entanglement? ). To me these sleep patterns are reflecting the transition of the DNA in brain cells switching the biophotons from particles to waves , acting as an antenna to coordinate the connection of DNA quantum circuit with an external source of input information. In fact, last week an amazing paper comes out. Researchers at UCSD demonstrate that if they model the conduction patterns of some brain activity as wave interferences instead of classical neuronal conduction, it models adjust better to the experimental outputs26.
  • There are hundreds of scientific papers showing that alterations in the DNA structure are related to aging. Even there is a quite accepted hypothesis showing that damage in DNA sequence is the main cause of aging. It is called “The DNA damage hypothesis of aging” and proposes that aging is a consequence of unrepaired accumulation of naturally occurring DNA damage. Damage in this context is a DNA alteration that has an abnormal structure. DNA damage can contribute to aging either indirectly (by increasing apoptosis or cellular senescence) or directly (by increasing cell dysfunction) 17-20. Finally, this year, Alex Cagan et. al showed evidence that suggest that somatic mutation in DNA rates are evolutionarily constrained and may be a contributing factor in ageing27. I think it is a fairly correct hypothesis, but it would be failing to describe why this accumulation of DNA damage happens over time. To me, DNA replication is been guide by these information input (proceeded by the DNA quantum circuit) coming from nature to introduce this somatic mutation that seem to be related with aging/evolution. It is really interesting the link that we could make over here. Na Li, et. al demonstrate that the energy released by phosphoanhydride-bond (PB) hydrolysis of dNTPs is in form of photons (PB-photons) to drive DNA replication, by modulating their resonance with the average inter-AuNP distance (D)28 . Thus, it would be possible to stablish a relation between biophotons and DNA replication accuracy in order to find a link between these facts and my hypothesis.
  • In January 2021 a Science paper analysis of sleep cycles suggests that our sleep is synchronized with the moon’s phases regardless of ethnic or cultural differences, and even where light pollution outshines moonlight21.
  • Schizophrenia patients have altered states of consciousness and unconsciousness, which provides an interesting model to study how the mind works. In April 2020, Matthew Halvorsen and colleagues22 found increased burden of ultra-rare structural variants localizing to boundaries of topologically associated domains in schizophrenia patients. This means that schizophrenia is directly related to DNA mutations, and that the DNA regions where these mutations were found do not correspond to known genes, not even genes, these altered DNA regions are responsible for maintaining the tridimensional DNA structure. Thus, according to my hypothesis, it would be possible that these altered regions of DNA were affecting the fractal antenna properties of DNA.
  • Previous works have related the isolation of organisms of electromagnetic fields (Faraday cage) with the alteration of basic biological functions23, 24.
  • There exist interesting scientific evidence showing strong relationships between memory consolidation and DNA architecture29-31.
  • The induction of the unconscious state by the use of anesthetic drugs has been extensively studied for many years32. Currently there is still no solid demonstration of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the action of these drugs. However, there are interesting studies that point to multiple possible directions in which anesthetic drugs could exert their effect32. I will choose to mention the studies that fit with my hypothesis, but I must clarify that there are other works pointing out other possible mechanisms. Thus, it is interesting to note that several studies have observed direct or indirect interaction between anesthetic chemical compounds and DNA33, 34. If my hypothesis is correct (at least in some part), anesthetic compounds could be inducing unconsciousness by altering the properties of DNA or disturbing in some way the quantum circuit properties of DNA (maybe hindering the proper behavior of photons).
  • The need to enter an unconscious state (sleep) is unavoidable for most living things39. This physiological fact is cumulative over time. The need to sleep is constitutively generated with each minute that a living being is awake and there is currently no confirmed hypothesis that explains the molecular basis of this phenomenon39. I think this can be related to the fact that DNA acts as a fractal antenna constitutively receiving signals from nature. Or conversely, in the conscious state, the biophotons acting as particles would cumulatively generate something (perhaps a change in quantum states) that would reach a limit where it would be necessary for the quantum circuit (DNA) to connect with nature to reset its parameters based on the information received. Diaz del Cerro et. al showed that the use of a bed with an insulating system of electromagnetic fields improves immune function, redox and inflammatory states, and decrease the rate of aging.

Final considerations

The only way to exist that living organisms have found is through self-replication (maybe the universe too). DNA is the only biological structure that has the ability to self-replicate. Thus, I intuit that DNA is the key structure for measuring time. I am not sure what intuition is, but I believe it’s linked to my hypothesis. I think that instinct and intuition are in some way related, instinct (for example, newborn sucking reflex in mammals) being the necessary way in a biological reality to allow the development of life, and intuition the necessary way in a universal reality to discover the laws of nature (mathematics for example). The truth of natural laws is beyond human constructions, but the development of bridges between both realities brings us closer to understanding the universe. Hopefully human nature instinctively tends to intuit the universal reality.

Future perspective

From a biological perspective, there are many ways to experimentally study these ideas. To do it in collaboration with scientists from other areas would mean a dream comes true for me. If at least parts of these ideas are correct, we would be laying the foundations for the understanding of how memory works, among other mind functions. Our discoveries would be relevant for different areas of medicine (all cells have DNA and the ability to produce biophotons) and even for the development of brain-machine interfaces. We could design quantum circuits based on the properties of DNA. Finally, if with the help of AI approaches (analyzing DNA sequences) we manage to establish a decoding system for the signals sent and received from DNA, I think we would be accessing to a new level of understanding of how organisms work.

Bibliography

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